"It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us…that government by the people, for the people, shall not perish fro the earth." --Address at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (November 19, 1863)
"And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgement of mankind, and the gracious favor of Almighty God." --Final Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863)
Since the nomination of Abraham Lincoln as the Republican Party's candidate for president in May of 1860, there have been ongoing attempts to remember him through public sculpture.1 His assassination in April 1865 galvanized the nation's northern populace to an awareness that had never before been witnessed in the nation's history. Almost overnight, the first "heroic" statue of Lincoln was created.2 Early literature treating Lincoln sculpture centered on all forms of Lincoln monuments and their locations. Lincoln statuary was just one component of these lists.3 It was not until 1932 that the first book-length treatment of heroic statues of Lincoln was compiled by Franklin Mead.4 Mead's work gives a brief description of the statue and of the sculptor involved. Mead also devised a classification system to group the various statues into geographic and chronological order.5
The next author to chronicle Lincoln in sculpture was Donald Charles Durman.6 As with Mead, Durman's work lists the known Lincoln statues. Durman also includes other "heroic" sculpture besides statues. As Durman states, "Only those busts, heads, and statuettes are included which were made by sculptors who also made large statues of Lincoln or for which Lincoln is definitely known to have posed."7 However, Durman did broaden the scope of the "heroics." He did this by including material used in making the sculptures from simply marble and bronze to also incorporate wood, plaster, and limestone works. Durman also expanded the entries to the works to contain more information concerning the individual sculptor and the sculpture itself. Almost immediately after Durman's well-known work, the third book to chronicle Lincoln in sculpture was published.
F. Lauriston Bullard was a well-known authority on Abraham Lincoln. Approached by the Abraham Lincoln Association to produce a comprehensive work on Lincoln sculpture, Dr. Bullard was a very good choice.8 Long an editor at the Boston Herald, Bullard had attained a degree of qualification on Lincoln by writing and collecting Lincolniana. The author was able to use his contacts in the newspaper industry to obtain information and photographs for the various sculpture. Dr. Bullard was also noted for his attention to detail.9 While Durman presents a greater number of entries, Bullard goes into more detail, giving the reader an index as opposed to Durman's exclusion of one. Bullard also gives his own assessment of the sculpture as works of art. Bullard's assessment is one of artistic merit. Rarely do Bullard or Durman, and never Mead, venture into the sociological or psychological meaning behind the need for erecting these Lincoln pieces.10 That task would be left for a later author.
In 1994, Merrill D. Peterson, Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Virginia, completed his tome, Lincoln in American Memory.11 This work was the culmination of a nation's lifetime of Lincoln. Professor Peterson's book is a wonderful compliment to Mead, Durman, and Bullard's works. It presents a synthesis of the reasons behind the desires of the American populace to foster and perpetuate the memory of Abraham Lincoln. Through Peterson's categorization12 the sculpture that is presented in the literature can be fully understood.
A means used to keep Lincoln for future generations was that of marking, preserving, and celebrating sites connected with the President. The desire to provide some form of "witness" joined with local pride and hopes for tourist commerce to lead to calls for locating and marking Lincoln sites.13
One such project was the Lincoln Circuit Marking Association. Conceived in 1914 by Judge Joseph Cunningham, reputed to be "the last living associate of Lincoln in 'riding the circuit,'" the association was to mark the sites of Eighth Circuit courthouses and the roads alleged to have been used by Lincoln in riding from county seat to county seat. The Illinois Daughters of the American Revolution soon became interested and organized the circuit marking association as the legal vehicle for fundraising and including non-DAR members in the good work.14
The project occupied seven years. County boards paid for the marking of sites within their boundaries. The program was so popular that courthouses outside of the officially demarcated Eighth Circuit were added, as "they wanted to be permitted to place markers, and it was agreed to do this, since Mr. Lincoln often practiced in those counties." Coles County was also added, as "in riding the circuit that county was always crossed, and in marking the Lincoln Circuit it would be impossible to leave this county out."15
The circuit was commemorated in three ways. Telephone poles along the circuit route carried the Association's logo, marking the way for pilgrims. Points where Lincoln was believed to have crossed county lines in riding the circuit were marked with metal plaques, designed by State Architect Edgar Martin. Who produced the interesting sculpted figure is at this point unknown. Each county seat was marked with a bronze plaque, designed by Henry Bacon with bas relief sculpted by Georg Lober, a native Chicagoan and student of Gutzon Borglum.16
The county seat markers were dedicated through 1922. The ceremonies typically included praise for the project (one speaker referred to the newly marked trail as "a necklace of precious jewels, threaded on the Lincoln circuit for the bosom of the nation"), and praise for the artworks themselves as carrying "a simplicity so simple as to be impressive, so beautiful as to dwell in the mind of the beholder."17
More important, each ceremony announced explicitly the driving force behind the larger commemorative effort--the effect the monuments would hopefully have on the coming generations. In the words of Rockford politician Oscar Carlstrom, these simple bas reliefs would lead "all who pass [these places] . . . to know of their having been touched by the immortal feet of Lincoln and . . . pause with a reverent thought in passing."18
Giant "Heroic" Busts
There have been a number of heroic Lincoln heads produced over the years. Donald Durman's book lists over a dozen such works.19 In recent years the list has grown to include many that have remained unrecorded despite the advent of the Smithsonian Institution's Art Inventory and the Save Outdoor Sculpture project.20 Many of these heads are still little-known works.
The most recent Illinois addition to this category are the two works of the Colorado artist, Jim Nance. Mr. Nance has sculpted life-size busts of Lincoln; one depicting him as "The Prairie Lawyer"; the other as president in a work titled "The Immortal Conscience." Mr. Nance has described these two works as one, that the "Prairie Lawyer" should not be viewed separate from "The Immortal Conscience,":
"When I tried to capture the spirit and the character of this great man, I realized that since both periods of his life intertwined, two portraits -attorney and president- were necessary to fulfill my vision of Mr. Lincoln. Only through two portraits could I show the transition and the struggle, the strength and the triumph, and the mortal cost of that triumph".21
The busts themselves are made of bronze, stand twenty-six inches high, and sit on a base of marble and walnut. The dedication ceremony for the two busts took place on May 3, 1995 at the Lincoln-Herndon State Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois.
The post-WWII years saw a United States with the strongest economy in the world. Families took to the road in search of education, entertainment, and excitement. One tool used by many entrepreneurial communities to attract the dollars of potential visitors was the roadside colossus.
Colossal figures as moneymaking ventures have long been a fixture in the United States, people traveling great distances to see Peale's mammoth skeleton, New York's Cardiff Giant, and outsized Native Americans and wild animals at various world fairs. By the 1960s Big Ole stood with giant buffalo, bass, and Canadian geese as staples of the American roadside.22 It was perhaps only a matter of time before they were joined by Abraham Lincoln.
The first of our Illinois colossal Lincolns was created in 1967 by Carl W. Rinnus for placement at the Illinois State Fairgrounds. Rinnus, a department store window decorator known for sophisticated and colorful displays, was approached by state fair officials to create a colossal figure of the ax-wielding Lincoln of the New Salem years.23
The 30 foot fiberglass figure was erected in late June 1967, about six weeks before the opening of the state fair, where it was joined by the other overgrown figures, including the Sinclair Oil Company dinosaurs, fiberglass farm animals, and the famed butter cow.24 Garishly colored, like most roadside colossi, the amiable young man holds his ax as if just breaking from work. The youthful, friendly features are those of the young Lincoln who, I would argue, embodies many of the attributes most Americans see in themselves as a people--honesty, good humor, a sense of fair play, and a willingness to help others.
The state fairgrounds colossus was followed in 1968 by another, located near Charleston, Illinois. While the young Lincoln in Springfield was conceived of as but a sign of welcome to a week-long festival, Charleston's 62-foot figure was meant to serve as an attraction in itself. "The world's tallest memorial to Abraham Lincoln" was intended to draw innumerable tourists and their dollars to Coles County's many recreational and historic sites, some of which were related to the 16th President.25
The history of the Charleston work is mired in controversy. Few connected with the project have cared to discuss it. Local boosters were eagerly pursuing several avenues to draw visitor dollars to the area.26 It appears that the Lincoln project began with a Charleston businessman noting the tourist drawing power of Iron City, Michigan's colossal Paul Bunyan. Others businessmen became interested and the work was soon commissioned under auspices of the private Charleston Tourism Development Corporation.27
In May 1969 the figure, produced by the Gordon Specialty Co. of St. Paul, Minnesota, was placed in the new Lincoln Memorial Park. The June 1 dedication was almost incidental to the "Lincoln Heritage Trail Festival," a weekend of special events headlined by a carnival, a flea market, Indian dances, antique shows, and horse racing. Lincoln and Douglas lookalikes urged visits to local attractions. One dedication speaker, referring to the figure itself, noted proudly that "Abraham Lincoln has made history for Charleston."28
Charleston's 62-foot Lincoln, clothed in black, projects a mood not unlike his dress. He seems downright angry. The face is actually severe looking, the left hand is formed into a fist that crumples the papers within it. With gray hair and beard, one could see a nasty John Brown as plausibly as Abraham Lincoln. Another disadvantage--the viewing angle from the ground to the right hand has led many observers to think that the President is making an obscene gesture. Charleston's Lincoln colossus stands today, enticing tourists to a private recreational park, still touted as "the world's tallest Lincoln statue."29
The move from nineteenth century to the twentieth saw transitions in many areas of the life of the United States, among them the passing of the generation that had experienced Abraham Lincoln, leading Merrill Peterson to declare this era that of a move from "Memory to History."30 Knowledge of the coming end of the Civil War generation was a troubling one to many Americans, leading them to seek means to transmit the testimony of the Civil War generation forward through time.31
Many of the thousands of soldier and sailor monuments dotting the landscape stand as a testimony to the perceived power of sculpture as a means of transmitting memory. Early in the commemoration process entrepreneurs recognized the existence of a large market for monuments inexpensive enough to be purchased by small towns.
One entrant into the market for an inexpensive tribute for placement in schools and other public places was Italian sculptor Rafaello Gironi, an employee of Boston's Sculptured Arts Company. Gironi, probably influenced by the commercial opportunities presented by the Lincoln Centennial and the desire to make memory "tangible", presented two works for public institutions in 1909. The first was a bearded bust , 2 feet 9 inches tall. It stood on a 3 1/2 foot pedestal and sold for $30. Gironi's status as a "thoroughly Americanized immigrant" was seen as giving the bust special meaning, with one commentator noting that while there were fine works by Volk and Saint-Gaudens on the market, "it is something new to have an accurate conception from the hands of an adopted citizen.
The young Italian also modeled a heroic statue. This work was almost certainly taken from the Chicago Lincoln Park Saint-Gaudens figure. In order to increase his potential buyer audience, Gironi relied on an old lithographer's trick of switching heads on a subject. Like printers had done, Gironi offered this statue with a bearded Lincoln or without. By doing so, Gironi was able to produce a chronologically correct Lincoln depending on the time period that the purchaser was interested in obtaining. This allowed Gironi to effectively skip the step of recasting the body of Lincoln every time there was a change of Lincoln's face.
The 1960s saw the opening of an era in which political leaders and the public generally no longer felt it necessary to "get right with Lincoln." Once the Great Emancipator and savior of the Union, later humanitarian and symbol of the worldwide battle of democracy against fascism, Abraham Lincoln now entered the realm of the mortal. All aspects of his character and thought came under scrutiny. Did Lincoln truly believe in the equality of all humanity, or was he, as Lerone Bennett claimed, just another racist? Did "Honest Abe" deserve the title, or was he in fact a sharp lawyer and, later, a cynical manipulator of the public? As Merrill Peterson has noted, even late-night comedians for the first time felt free to poke fun at the tall skinny guy with the funny hat.32
A sculptural figure that can be interpreted as symbolizing this period of rethinking and doubt stands at an entrance to downtown Springfield's Lincoln Library (the name given to Springfield's public library). In April 1976 officials of the Old Capitol Art Fair examined over 50 designs for a major sculpture to be placed in front of the under-construction Lincoln Library building, which was to serve as home to the fair's permanent collection. The work would be the art fair's Bicentennial gift to the city of Springfield. After an initial round of competition, a design by well known Chicago sculptor Abbott Pattison was unanimously chosen by the art fair's panel of judges. The finished sculpture was unveiled November 21, 1976, at the as yet unfinished Lincoln Library. The actual appearance of the work had been a well-kept secret--in the words of one art fair official "We don't want to spoil the surprise."33 Surprise wasn't the word.
The abstract figure, "conceived as an image of Lincoln," stands eight feet tall. It is located at the library's south entrance, facing the Lincoln Home National Historic Site. Sculptor Pattison intended for the statue to thus represent "the marriage of modern Springfield and Lincoln's day." The head and facial features were meant to bear resemblance to those of Lincoln, while the rest of the body is completely abstract. In a bit of understatement one journalist declared that "the abstract body and representational head evokes a character resemblance rather than an exacting physical likeness. . . ." Among the "Lincolnesque qualities" mentioned are "kindness, hominess, and humility" in the figure, "masterful personality" projected in the arms, and "born of the land" affirmed by the legs as they sink into the base.34
Artist Pattison, who claimed himself to be "a patsy to do anything about Lincoln," readily admitted that "not . . . everyone is going to be 'wowed' about my sculpture," but that "It seems that for a modern abstract building you must straddle the resemblances to Lincoln with the lines and shape of the building. . . . The building does not call for a romantic picture of Lincoln. It was a compromise between the completely abstract and a man whom we have all admired from childhood."35
Pattison's "Lincoln" withstood periodic attack through the first year or so if its existence. Less than a week after the dedication it was found sporting a sign reading "Sid's Junk Yard." Much criticism took the form of letters to the local newspaper. One out-of-state visitor, bearing the appropriate surname Lament, used the terms "abominable," "monstrosity," "grotesque," and "degrading" all in one paragraph.36
The statue stands today, unnoticed, it seems, by almost all but grumpy Lincolnians. This work might, in fact, be the Lincoln sculpture for its time--a non-representational representation reflecting the society's own confused feelings about the man who was once called "The First American."
One of the most recent entries into the field of Lincoln sculpture is the statue at Bloomington, Illinois. Inspired by the Bicentennial of the United States and a desire for McLean County to have a life-size Lincoln, V.L. "Budd" Fairfield, an American History instructor at Bloomington High School began the project in 1975. Fairfield had "conceived" of his idea from an unusual source - actor Raymond Massey. Fairfield had once stood next to the actor when Massey was in a traveling production of "Abe Lincoln in Illinois." Earlier attempts to erect a suitable Lincoln statue by McLean County's citizenry had met with defeat after projected costs had become too prohibitive.37
After preliminary proposals, the Bloomington Bicentennial Committee awarded the project to sculptor and Illinois State University faculty member, Keith Knoblock. The image that Knoblock conceived was one that shows Lincoln in his forties. Here one can see an image of Lincoln as part of the common folk. His sleeves are rolled up and he has his working clothes on, prepared to tackle any task. This statue is of a copper/bronze mixture and took eight months to complete. The dedication was held on August 28, 1977 and the statue was placed in the then newly-built McLean County Law and Justice Center. It is in this center that the statue still resides, reminding all of Lincoln's connection with Bloomington and McLean County.38
A recent addition to the world of Lincoln statues is the work done by Lily Tolpo. Long known as the wife of the noted Lincoln sculptor, Carl Tolpo, and for her bust of Mary Todd Lincoln, Ms. Tolpo has created a life-sized portrait of both Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas depicting their debate at Freeport, Illinois. Titled "Freeport's Lincoln and Douglas in Debate," it is the only such portrait of both men, together, known to exist.39 The sculpture depicts a seated Lincoln listening to a standing Douglas giving his point in the debate.
Originally, the concept for this statue was to place the original in Freeport with subsequent castings of the same statue to be located in the six other debate sites around the state. However, the only one that has been dedicated to date, is the Freeport site. That dedication took place on August 27, 1992, the 134th anniversary of the original debate. When contacted, a Freeport official stated that other sites are more interested in placing "original pieces" depicting their own site's uniqueness than in a replica of the Freeport statue.40
The desire to expand Lincoln's influence goes on unabated. Lincoln sculpture is a major component of this influence. Tourism, personal economic gain, war remembrance, and artistic recognition are just a few of the elements. Regardless of the motive, the unifying representative for all of this is Lincoln and his image; whatever that image may mean. By documenting these pieces, the researcher and historian are able to better understand the differing motives and desires behind these driving forces; and, to properly place Lincoln in the context of the ever-changing times.
About this contributor
Kim Bauer is the historical research specialist for the Henry Horner Lincoln Collection of the Illinois State Historical Library in Springfield, Illinois. The author would especially like to thank Mr. Mark Johnson of the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency for his invaluable assistance in helping to research this topic.
1. The world of Lincoln sculpture must be forever indebted to Leonard Wells Volk. His life mask of Abraham Lincoln, done in the spring of 1860, has remained the definitive basis for countless sculptural renditions and variations of Lincoln. During the winter of 1860 the sculptor Thomas D. Jones came to Springfield, Illinois and made a bust of Lincoln, the first bearded bust from a life sitting.
2. The art term "heroic" used throughout this paper means a "life-size" or "larger than life" work. Durman claimed the first "heroic" statue credited to the sculptor Pietro Mezzara. For a more complete account of this see Donald Charles Durman, He Belongs to the Ages: The Statues of Abraham Lincoln (New York: Oxford University Press, 1951), p. 26-27. Hereafter Durman. Dr. Louis A. Warren claimed that Henry Jackson Ellicott did the first life size study. "Earliest Sculptors of the President," Lincoln Lore, No. 899, July 1, 1946. This was subsequently disproved and credit still belongs to Mezzara.
3. Works with titles as Charles Edward Brown's Scenic and Historic Illinois; Guide to One Thousand Features of Scenic, Historic, and Curious Interest in Illinois (Madison, WI: C.E. Brown, 1928) and the Southwestern Indiana Civic Association's The Lincoln Country of Southwestern Indiana (Evansville, IN: Koenemann-Riehl and Company, 1935) were indicative of the localized attempts to draw visitors to the region.
4. Franklin B. Mead. Heroic Statues in Bronze of Abraham Lincoln, Introducing the Hoosier Youth of Paul Manship (Fort Wayne, IN: The Lincoln National Life Foundation, 1932).
5. For example, Mead uses chapters titled as "The Lincoln of Illinois," and "Lincoln, the President," to place the various statues in their artistic context.
6. Durman, He Belongs to the Ages: The Statues of Abraham Lincoln. See footnote two for complete citation.
7. Ibid., p. vii.
8. F. Lauriston Bullard. Lincoln in Marble and Bronze (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1952).
9. While proof-reading his author's copy of the work, Dr. Bullard came across a discrepancy and left this note to the editor, Dr. Roy Basler, "To wit: There is no sandstone Lincoln. In my present state, my text is not easy to get. Am in pajamas, writing at a crowded table." From the author's copy Lincoln in Marble and Bronze, Box 93, Abraham Lincoln Association collection, Manuscripts Division, Illinois State Historical Library.
10. The only times that these discussions concerning the psychological and sociological impact are discussed is when the respective author's are quoting the artist's own conception of what Lincoln meant to them; or, when the question arose during dedication ceremonies.
11. Merrill D. Peterson. Lincoln in American Memory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).
12. Dr. Peterson "archetypes" are: ëThe Savior of the Union'; ëThe Great Emancipator'; ëMan of the People'; ëFirst American'; and, ëSelf-Made Man'. Lincoln in American Memory, Back page of inside dust jacket cover.
13. For Springfield sites, see Peterson, p. 265; the background of another project, the Lincoln Way, is covered in Report of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library to the Forty-ninth General Assembly of the State of Illinois on the Investigation of the Lincoln Way (Springfield: Illinois State Historical Library, 1915), vii-ix
14. "The Lincoln Circuit," circular issued by Lincoln Circuit Marking Association, Henry Horner Lincoln Collection, Illinois State Historical Library.
17. "Lincoln Circuit Marker Unveiled," Illinois State Register, 5/8/22, p. 2.
18. "Unveil Marker With Impressive Program," Metamora Herald, 10/20/22, p. 1.
19. Durman. He Belongs to the Ages: The Statues of Abraham Lincoln, p. ix-xii.
20. The Smithsonian Institution has been cataloging the known examples of art in America nearly since its inception in 1846. The Save Outdoor Sculpture (SOS) Project is a cooperative attempt by the National Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Property and the Smithsonian to catalog and keep an up-to-date inventory of the known outdoor sculptures throughout the United States. To access the Smithsonian Institute's Art Inventory on the Internet go to the address www.siris.si.edu. To access the SOS Project on the Internet go to www.nic.org.
21. From the promotional brochure published by Jim Nance and to be accompanied with the statues. See the inside front cover for this quote. The brochure and other supporting material can be found in the vertical file Sculptors: Nance, Jim located in the Henry Horner Lincoln Collection, Illinois State Historical Library.
22. For an enjoyable look at the colossus as an American phenomenon see Karal Ann Marling, The Colossus of Roads: Myth and Symbol Along the American Highway (Minneapolis; University of Minnesota Press, 1984).
23. "Creator of fairgrounds Abe statue may finally get his due," The State Journal-Register, 2/11/96, p. 4.
24. For unusual sculptural attractions see "Illinois State Fair" advertising supplement, Illinois State Journal, 8/6/67.
25. Undated press release advertising erection of the figure is found in "Lincoln Heritage Trail Festival" publicity packet, Henry Horner Lincoln Collection, Illinois State Historical Library. Lincoln-related sites in the area include Lincoln Log Cabin State Historic Site, Shiloh Church (burial place of Thomas and Sarah Lincoln), and the site of the Charleston Lincoln-Douglas debate.
26. One such venture was inclusion on the Lincoln Heritage Trail, a project of the state tourism departments of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, with support of the American Petroleum Institute. See "Lincoln Heritage Trail Festival" publicity packet, Henry Horner Lincoln Collection, Illinois State Historical Library. For outline history of the Lincoln Heritage Trail see Mark E. Neely, Jr., Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (NY: McGraw-Hill, 1982), p. 190.
27. "Will Lincoln buy Charleston's Joke?" The State Journal-Register, 6/8/78, p.1.
28. For information concerning dedication and photo of lookalikes see "Lincoln Heritage Trail Festival" publicity packet, Henry Horner Lincoln Collection, Illinois State Historical Library; dedication quote, "Lincoln Statue Dedicated Sunday," Coles County Times-Courier (Charleston), 6/2/69, p. 1.
29. Springhaven Campground and Recreational Park promotional brochure, courtesy John Hoffmann.
30. The term "memory to history" is taken from Merrill Peterson, Lincoln in American Memory. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994). Chapter 6 discusses various aspects of the transition as reflected in Lincoln scholarship and commemoration.
31. The notion of passing memory of the war to another generation is illustrated by one of the pleas used to seek support for a soldiers and sailors monument in Decatur, Illinois-"in a little while those [who lived the experience of the war] who still live will also have passed away. The . . . the Macon county soldiers of the civil war will live only in the memories of succeeding generations." "The Monument," Decatur Herald, 10/4/03, p. 3. A report of the dedication of a monument in Virden, Illinois, brought the comment that "two generations seemed to clasp hands yesterday across a span of 30 years in building a monument, the foundation and superstructure of which is as enduring as the everlasting hills." "The Monument History," Virden Reporter, 6/13/02, p. 1. One means used by veterans to share their "testimony" was to visit schools in the week before Decoration Day, to share their memories with students. See "The Veterans Corner," Peoria Daily Transcript, 5/3/97, p. 3 and 5/30/97, p. 4; "Soldiers at School," Canton Weekly Register, 6/2/10, p. 1.
32. Peterson, pp. 357-58; 379-80.
33. "Sculpture planned for new library," The State Journal-Register, 11/3/76, p. 3.
34. "Lincoln Library sculpture," Illinois Times, 11/26-12/2/76, pp. 13-14.
36. "Toby McDaniel," The State Journal-Register, 11/26/76, p. 15; "Statue Called Monstrosity," The State Journal-Register, 6/27/77, p. 6.
37. For Fairfield's encounter with Massey, see The Bloomington Pantagraph [n.d., n.p.] The 1875 and 1890 attempts had projected costs of $ 50,000 and $ 100,000 respectively. Ford County Press, Sept. 18, 1997 [n.p.]. Both of these articles are from the Sculptors-Knoblock, Keith vertical file in the Henry Horner Lincoln Collection, Illinois State Historical Library.
39. Barbara Hughett. "Lincoln-Douglas Statue to be Dedicated in Freeport, Illinois," The Little Giant: A Newsletter of the Stephen A. Douglas Association, May 1992, v. 4 (1): 3
40. Personal telephone interview with Ms. Mickey Martin, President, Freeport Lincoln-Douglas Art Foundation, 10/19/97.